The Generation of Six Clinical-Grade Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines
The edict for producing clinically compliant human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) necessitates adherence to global ethical standards for egg procurement and embryo donation, conformity to regulations controlling clinical-grade cell and tissue product development, and compliance with current good tissue and manufacturing practices (cGTPs and cGMPs, respectively). For example, the U.S. FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research recently promulgated regulations regarding human cells and cellular-based products (HCT/Ps) intended for tissue repair or replacement. Issued under Code of Federal Regulations parts 1270 and 1271 ( Code of Federal Regulations, 2006a, 2006b ), the rules are broadened by requirements for donor selection and cGMPs for HCT/Ps. By adhering to regulations and in anticipation of future standards, we have generated six clinical-grade hESC lines. Here we describe their manufacture, from embryo procurement to line characterization, including sterility and pathogen testing ( Figure 1 ). To our knowledge, the lines represent the first to have been produced in compliance with international regulatory requirements, suitable for therapeutic use.