A general category of disorders related to the chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life – also known as metabolism. For example, people use “metabolic chemical reactions to change food into energy or fat. BioTime has learned how to change their stem cells into a cell type called a brown adipocyte. New data indicate that brown adipocytes can play a role in metabolizing food-derived molecules to create heat rather than fat. This discovery may be valuable, since brown fat adipocytes may be able to play a role in combating obesity and its side effects, including diabetes.